Linear development in Kenya is rapidly fragmenting the landscape and negatively affecting both wildlife and livestock and their movements. Currently the challenge in Kenya is to build a more efficient transport system that facilitates economic growth and development. The Mombasa-Nairobi highway (A109), transects, Kajiado, Machakos and Makueni counties; these counties harbor crucial ecosystems that sustain both wildlife and man. Since 2007, Action for Cheetahs in Kenya (ACK) has documented wildlife and livestock movements between the growing towns of Kyumvi (Machakos junction) and Sultan Hamuud, and documented movements of a flagship species such as the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) which is considered as vulnerable by IUCN.
The study evaluates the effects that come with the need for growth in terms of linear development especially on wildlife and local livelihoods along a 50 km section of the Mombasa-Nairobi highway, through documentation of animal roadkills . A structured model based on binary regression was used to determine influence factors (water points, corners, vegetation, culverts, migratory routes, settlements, slope, land use and fences)on road mortality for wildlife and livestock Additionally, we are able to identify roadkill hotspots and species characteristics making them more likely to be victims of highway incidents within the study area. Interviews were used to rate the level of knowledge of roadkill threats and to identify potential mitigation measures.